Association between body weight and composition and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in the Diabetes Prevention Program

Eur J Nutr. 2017 Feb;56(1):161-170. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-1066-z. Epub 2015 Nov 2.


Objective: We examined associations between body weight and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25OHD) in prediabetes and sought to estimate the impact of adiposity on these associations.

Methods: The study was conducted in the placebo (n = 1082) and intensive lifestyle (n = 1079) groups of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a multicenter trial to prevent type 2 diabetes in adults with prediabetes. Weight and 25OHD were measured at baseline, month 6, years 1 and 2. In a subset (n = 584), visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adiposity were assessed by computed tomography at baseline and year 1.

Results: In cross-sectional analyses, baseline body weight, total fat, VAT, and SAT were inversely associated with plasma 25OHD concentration after multivariable adjustment. VAT accounted for 40 % [95 % CI 11, 69] of the association of body weight with plasma 25OHD concentration. There was no significant contribution by total fat or SAT. Two-year changes in plasma 25OHD concentration varied inversely with changes in body weight (p < 0.0001). One-year changes in total fat, VAT, or SAT were not significant mediators of the association between change in plasma 25OHD concentration and body weight.

Conclusion: Our study found an inverse association between body weight and plasma 25OHD concentration at baseline and over a 2-year period in adults with prediabetes. These findings in the DPP, a weight loss intervention study, raise the possibility that weight loss increases plasma 25OHD concentration. Whether adiposity mediates this association remains inconclusive.

Keywords: Adipose tissue; Body composition; Body weight; Diabetes Prevention Program; Obesity; Vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adiposity
  • Adult
  • Body Composition*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / prevention & control
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Intra-Abdominal Fat / metabolism
  • Life Style
  • Linear Models
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / blood
  • Prediabetic State / blood
  • Prediabetic State / drug therapy
  • Seasons
  • Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal / metabolism
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Waist Circumference


  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D