No Need for Lopinavir Dose Adjustment during Pregnancy: a Population Pharmacokinetic and Exposure-Response Analysis in Pregnant and Nonpregnant HIV-Infected Subjects

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Nov 2;60(1):400-8. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01197-15. Print 2016 Jan.


Lopinavir-ritonavir is frequently prescribed to HIV-1-infected women during pregnancy. Decreased lopinavir exposure has been reported during pregnancy, but the clinical significance of this reduction is uncertain. This analysis aimed to evaluate the need for lopinavir dose adjustment during pregnancy. We conducted a population pharmacokinetic analysis of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations collected from 84 pregnant and 595 nonpregnant treatment-naive and -experienced HIV-1-infected subjects enrolled in six clinical studies. Lopinavir-ritonavir doses in the studies ranged between 400/100 and 600/150 mg twice daily. In addition, linear mixed-effect analysis was used to compare the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC0-12) and concentration prior to dosing (Cpredose) in pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects. The relationship between lopinavir exposure and virologic suppression in pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects was evaluated. Population pharmacokinetic analysis estimated 17% higher lopinavir clearance in pregnant women than in nonpregnant subjects. Lopinavir clearance values postpartum were 26.4% and 37.1% lower than in nonpregnant subjects and pregnant women, respectively. As the tablet formulation was estimated to be 20% more bioavailable than the capsule formulation, no statistically significant differences between lopinavir exposure in pregnant women receiving the tablet formulation and nonpregnant subjects receiving the capsule formulation were identified. In the range of lopinavir AUC0-12 or Cpredose values observed in the third trimester, there was no correlation between lopinavir exposure and viral load or proportion of subjects with virologic suppression. Similar efficacy was observed between pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects receiving lopinavir-ritonavir at 400/100 mg twice daily. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results support the use of a lopinavir-ritonavir 400/100-mg twice-daily dose during pregnancy.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / blood
  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology
  • Area Under Curve
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / blood
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • HIV-1 / growth & development
  • Humans
  • Lopinavir / blood
  • Lopinavir / pharmacokinetics*
  • Lopinavir / pharmacology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Third
  • Ritonavir / blood
  • Ritonavir / pharmacokinetics*
  • Ritonavir / pharmacology
  • Tablets
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Viral Load / drug effects*


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Tablets
  • Lopinavir
  • Ritonavir