Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP)2B1 Contributes to Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Anticancer Drug SN-38, Active Metabolite of Irinotecan Hydrochloride

Drug Metab Dispos. 2016 Jan;44(1):1-7. doi: 10.1124/dmd.115.066712. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

Abstract

Gastrointestinal toxicity, such as late-onset diarrhea, is a significant concern in irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11)-containing regimens. Prophylaxis of late-onset diarrhea has been reported with use of Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine containing baicalin and with the antibiotic cefixime, and this has been explained in terms of inhibition of bacterial deconjugation of SN-38-glucuronide since unconjugated SN-38 (active metabolite of CPT-11) is responsible for the gastrointestinal toxicity. It is also prerequisite for SN-38 to be accumulated in intestinal tissues to exert toxicity. Based on the fact that liver-specific organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, a member of the same family as OATP2B1, is known to be involved in hepatic transport of SN-38, we hypothesized that intestinal transporter OATP2B1 contributes to the accumulation of SN-38 in gastrointestinal tissues, and its inhibition would help prevent associated toxicity. We found that uptake of SN-38 by OATP2B1-expressing Xenopus oocytes was significantly higher than that by control oocytes. OATP2B1-mediated uptake of SN-38 was saturable, pH dependent, and decreased in the presence of baicalin, cefixime, or fruit juices such as apple juice. In vivo gastrointestinal toxicity of SN-38 in mice caused by oral administration for consecutive 5 days was prevented by coingestion of apple juice. Thus, OATP2B1 contributes to the uptake of SN-38 by intestinal tissues, triggering gastrointestinal toxicity. So, in addition to the reported inhibition of bacterial β-glucuronidase by cefixime or baicalin, inhibition of OATP2B1 may also contribute to prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity. Apple juice may be helpful for prophylaxis of late-onset diarrhea observed in CPT-11 therapy without disturbance of the intestinal microflora.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antineoplastic Agents / metabolism
  • Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity*
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Bacteria / enzymology
  • Bacterial Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Camptothecin / administration & dosage
  • Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Camptothecin / metabolism
  • Camptothecin / toxicity
  • Cefixime / pharmacology
  • Diarrhea / chemically induced*
  • Diarrhea / metabolism
  • Diarrhea / microbiology
  • Diarrhea / prevention & control
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Flavonoids / pharmacology
  • Food-Drug Interactions
  • Fruit and Vegetable Juices
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome
  • Gene Transfer Techniques
  • Glucuronidase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Glucuronidase / metabolism
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Intestinal Absorption*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Intestines / drug effects*
  • Intestines / microbiology
  • Irinotecan
  • Kinetics
  • Malus
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Oocytes
  • Organic Anion Transporters / genetics
  • Organic Anion Transporters / metabolism*
  • Xenopus laevis

Substances

  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Flavonoids
  • OATP2B1 protein, mouse
  • Organic Anion Transporters
  • SLCO2B1 protein, human
  • baicalin
  • Irinotecan
  • Cefixime
  • Glucuronidase
  • Camptothecin