Objective: To evaluate correlates of high diabetes-related distress (HD) among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods: The study involved a sample of patients with T2DM who filled in the Problem Areas in Diabetes questionnaire (PAID-5); a score ≥ 40 indicates HD. Additional instruments included: SF12 health survey (SF12), Well-Being Index (WHO-5), Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form (DES-SF), Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care-Short Form (PACIC-SF), Health Care Climate-Short Form (HCC-SF), Global Satisfaction with Diabetes Treatment (GSDT), Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA-6); Barriers to Medications (BM), Perceived Social Support (PSS). Clinical data were extracted from computerized medical records. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of HD.
Results: Of 2374 patients (mean age 65.0±10.2 years, diabetes duration 14.0±15.3 years, 59.9% males), 1429 (60.2%) had HD. Compared to patients with a PAID-5 score<40 those with HD were more often female, living alone, had a lower level of education, higher HbA1c levels, a greater perceived impact of hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic symptoms, a greater number of diabetes-related complications, lower scores of WHO-5, DES-SF, PSS, GSDT, SF-12 PCS, SDSCA-healthy diet and physical activity subscales, higher scores of BM and SDSCA-SMBG component. Multivariable analyses confirmed the relationship between HD and symptoms of hyperglycemia, levels of empowerment, global satisfaction with treatment, perception of barriers to medication, and psychological well-being. Conclusion HD is extremely common among people with T2DM, affecting almost two-thirds of patients. High levels of distress are associated with worse clinical and psychosocial outcomes and should be considered as a key patient-centered indicator.
Keywords: Diabetes related distress; Patient-centered outcomes; Quality of care; Type 2 diabetes.
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