Inflammation during skeletal muscle regeneration and tissue remodeling: application to exercise-induced muscle damage management

Immunol Cell Biol. 2016 Feb;94(2):140-5. doi: 10.1038/icb.2015.97. Epub 2015 Nov 3.


Increase in the practice of sport by more and more numerous people in the Western countries is associated with an increase in muscle injuries, and in demand for improving muscle function and acceleration of muscle recovery after damage. Most of the treatments used target inflammation. Indeed, several lines of experimental evidence in animal models that are supported by human studies identify inflammatory cells, and particularly macrophages, as essential players in skeletal muscle regeneration. Macrophages act not only through their immune functions, but also control myogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling by directly acting on myogenic precursors and fibro-adipogenic precursors. In light of these recent biological advances, the question of early treatment aiming at blunting inflammation after exercise-induced muscle injury is discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Exercise* / physiology
  • Extracellular Matrix / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Macrophages / immunology*
  • Muscle Development / immunology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / injuries
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Regeneration / immunology*
  • Sports Medicine*