IAPAC Guidelines for Optimizing the HIV Care Continuum for Adults and Adolescents

J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. Nov-Dec 2015;14 Suppl 1:S3-S34. doi: 10.1177/2325957415613442. Epub 2015 Nov 2.


Background: An estimated 50% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) globally are unaware of their status. Among those who know their HIV status, many do not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a timely manner, fail to remain engaged in care, or do not achieve sustained viral suppression. Barriers across the HIV care continuum prevent PLHIV from achieving the therapeutic and preventive effects of ART.

Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted, and 6132 articles, including randomized controlled trials, observational studies with or without comparators, cross-sectional studies, and descriptive documents, met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 1047 articles were used to generate 36 recommendations to optimize the HIV care continuum for adults and adolescents.

Recommendations: Recommendations are provided for interventions to optimize the HIV care environment; increase HIV testing and linkage to care, treatment coverage, retention in care, and viral suppression; and monitor the HIV care continuum.

Keywords: HIV; antiretroviral therapy; continuum of care; testing; viral suppression.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Health
  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / immunology
  • Humans
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic


  • Anti-HIV Agents