Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2015;20(37):10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2015.20.37.30021.
doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2015.20.37.30021.

Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus CC398 Is an Increasing Cause of Disease in People With No Livestock Contact in Denmark, 1999 to 2011

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus CC398 Is an Increasing Cause of Disease in People With No Livestock Contact in Denmark, 1999 to 2011

Jesper Larsen et al. Euro Surveill. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Livestock constitutes a potential reservoir of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates belonging to a recently derived lineage within clonal complex 398 (MRSA CC398-IIa). Since its discovery in the early 2000s, this lineage has become a major cause of human disease in Europe, posing a serious public health challenge in countries with intensive livestock production. To retrace the history of human colonisation and infection with MRSA CC398-IIa in Denmark, we conducted a nationwide, retrospective study of MRSA isolates collected from 1999 to 2011. Among 7,429 MRSA isolates screened, we identified 416 MRSA CC398-IIa isolates. Of these, 148 were from people with infections, including 51 from patients reporting no livestock exposure. The first cases of MRSA CC398-IIa infection in Denmark occurred in 2004. Subsequently, the incidence of MRSA CC398-IIa infection showed a linear annual increase of 66% from 2004 to 2011 (from 0.09 to 1.1 per 100,000 person-years). There were clear temporal and spatial relationships between MRSA CC398-IIa-infected patients with and without livestock exposure. These findings suggest substantial dissemination of MRSA CC398-IIa from livestock or livestock workers into the Danish community and underscore the need for strategies to control its spread both on and off the farm.

Keywords: epidemiology; meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals; meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in humans; surveillance; typing; zoonotic infections.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest

None declared.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Annual number of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CC398-IIa isolates, from each newly identified MRSA-positive person, Denmark, 1999–2011 (n = 416)
Figure 2
Figure 2
Annual number (A) and scatter plot (B) of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CC398-IIa infections, Denmark, 2004–2011 (n = 148) CO: community-onset disease; HO: healthcare-onset disease; LO: livestock-onset disease. Pearson’s correlation (r) with p values in parentheses, linear regression line (solid) and 95% confidence intervals (dashed lines) and slope (m) with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses are shown.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Geographical distribution of patients with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CC398-IIa infection, Denmark, 2004–2011 (n = 148) CO: community-onset disease; HO, healthcare-onset disease; LO: livestock-onset disease. Each dot is placed randomly within a 5-km radius of the exact residential address within a given municipality of residence to protect anonymity of the patient. The municipal population density per km2 is shown.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 46 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

Publication types

MeSH terms

Substances

Feedback