Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty has been used successfully over the last few years for the relief of moderate to severe valvar pulmonic stenosis in neonates, infants, children, and adults. Both immediate and intermediate term follow-up results have been well documented by cardiac catheterization studies. Electrocardiographic and echo-Doppler evaluation at follow-up is reflective of the results and may avoid the need for recatheterization. The results of balloon valvuloplasty are either comparable to or better than those reported with surgical valvuloplasty. The causes of restenosis have been identified, and appropriate modifications in the technique, particularly the recommended use of a balloon/annulus ratio of 1.2 to 1.5, should give better results than previously documented. Complications of the procedure have been minimal. Further refinement of the catheters and technique may reduce the complication rate even further. The indications for balloon valvuloplasty have not been clearly defined but should probably be similar to those used for surgical valvotomy; only patients with moderate to severe valvar pulmonic stenosis are candidates for balloon valvuloplasty. Previous surgery and pulmonary valve dysplasia are not contraindications for balloon valvuloplasty. The procedure is also applicable to pulmonary stenosis associated with other complex cardiac defects and stenosis of bioprosthetic valves in pulmonary position. Miniaturatization of balloon/catheter systems to further reduce the complication rate and documentation of favorable result at 5- to 10-year follow-up are necessary.