Recently, there has been increasing interest toward the liberalization of sucrose in the diets of individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). However, there is evidence from several well-controlled prospective studies demonstrating that the consumption of moderate amounts of sucrose may result in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The fact that not all studies demonstrate these deleterious effects does not negate the positive data. The magnitude of the deleterious effects will probably vary with individual patients, baseline status, and amount of sucrose. Because these metabolic abnormalities are most disturbed in diabetes and are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease, it would seem reasonable to continue to advise patients with NIDDM to limit sucrose consumption, at least until available data would allow us to predict in which individuals and at what level of sucrose consumption these adverse metabolic effects would not be present.