Mass immunization with inactivated polio vaccine in conflict zones--Experience from Borno and Yobe States, North-Eastern Nigeria

J Public Health Policy. 2016 Feb;37(1):36-50. doi: 10.1057/jphp.2015.34. Epub 2015 Nov 5.


The use of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization to replace Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) is crucial in eradicating polio. In June 2014, Nigeria launched an IPV campaign in the conflict-affected states of Borno and Yobe, the largest ever implemented in Africa. We present the initiatives and lessons learned. The 8-day event involved two parallel campaigns. OPV target age was 0-59 months, while IPV targeted all children aged 14 weeks to 59 months. The Borno state primary health care agency set up temporary health camps for the exercise and treated minor ailments for all. The target population for the OPV campaign was 685,674 children in Borno and 113,774 in Yobe. The IPV target population for Borno was 608,964 and for Yobe 111,570. OPV coverage was 105.1 per cent for Borno and 103.3 per cent for Yobe. IPV coverage was 102.9 per cent for Borno and 99.1 per cent for Yobe. (Where we describe coverage as greater than 100 per cent, this reflects original underestimates of the target populations.) A successful campaign and IPV immunization is viable in conflict areas.

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Mass Vaccination / statistics & numerical data*
  • Nigeria
  • Poliomyelitis / prevention & control*
  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated / administration & dosage*
  • Program Evaluation
  • Warfare*


  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated