A strictly anaerobic, thermophilic and halotolerant strain, designated IA106T, was isolated from the seepage water collected in a metal biocorrosion test at a depth of 490 m, in a 130-160 m thick, subterranean Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation (158-152 million years old) in northern France. This geological formation has been selected as the potential host rock for the French high-level nuclear waste repository. Cells of strain IA106T stained Gram-positive and were non-motile, spore-forming, straight rods (0.5 × 2-6 μm). The five major fatty acids were C16 : 0 (15.9 %), C18 : 0 (15.4 %), iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B(14.8 %), iso-C17 : 0 (14.7 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (13.0 %). Growth was observed at temperatures ranging from 55 to 70 °C and at pH 5.5-9. The salinity range for growth was 0-20 g NaCl 1- 1. Yeast extract was required for growth. Strain IA106T was able to grow on lactate and various sugars in the presence of thiosulfate as electron acceptor. Sulfate, sulfite, elemental sulfur, fumarate, nitrate and nitrite were not reduced. The DNA G+C content was 60.2 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain IA106T belonged to the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae, class Clostridia, phylum Firmicutes, and was most closely related to Thermanaeromonas toyohensis DSM 14490T (95.16 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons and physiological characteristics, strain IA106T represents a novel species of the genus Thermanaeromonas, for which the name Thermanaeromonas burensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IA106T ( = DSM 26576T = JCM 18718T).