Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma: stem cell transplantation methods that enhance stemness

Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015 Nov 5;6:215. doi: 10.1186/s13287-015-0217-8.

Abstract

Because of their ease of isolation and relative abundance, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are a particularly attractive autologous cell source for various therapeutic purposes. ASCs retain a high proliferation capacity in vitro and have the ability to undergo extensive differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Moreover, ASCs secrete a wide range of growth factors that can stimulate tissue regeneration. Therefore, the clinical use of ASCs is feasible. However, the potential of ASCs differs depending on the donor's medical condition, including diseases such as diabetes. Recent studies demonstrated that ASCs from diabetic donors exhibit reduced proliferative potential and a smaller proportion of stem cell marker-positive cells. Therefore, to ensure the success of regenerative medicine, tissue engineering methods must be improved by the incorporation of factors that increase the proliferation and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells when autologous cells are used. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which contains high levels of diverse growth factors that can stimulate stem cell proliferation and cell differentiation in the context of tissue regeneration, has recently been identified as a biological material that could be applied to tissue regeneration. Thus, co-transplantation of ASCs and PRP represents a promising novel approach for cell therapy in regenerative medicine. In this review, we describe the potential benefits of adding PRP to ASCs and preclinical and clinical studies of this approach in various medical fields. We also discuss the mechanisms of PRP action and future cell-based therapies using co-transplantation of ASCs and PRP.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / cytology*
  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / physiology
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation / methods*
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / cytology*
  • Platelet-Rich Plasma*

Substances

  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins