Aims/introduction: Greater glycemic variability and lack of predictability are important issues for patients with type 1 diabetes. Dietary factors are one of the contributors to this variability, but how closely diet is linked to glycemic fluctuation on a daily basis has not been investigated. We examined the association between carbohydrate intake and glycemic excursion in outpatients.
Materials and methods: A total of 33 patients with type 1 diabetes were included in the analyses (age 44.5 ± 14.7 years, diabetes duration 15.1 ± 8.3 years, 64% female, 30% using insulin pump, glycated hemoglobin 8.1 ± 1.3%). Time spent in euglycemia (70-180 mg/dL), hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dL) and hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dL) of consecutive 48-h periods of continuous glucose monitoring data were collected together with simultaneous records of dietary intake, insulin dose and physical activity. Correlation analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate the contribution of carbohydrate intake to time spent in the target glycemic range.
Results: In multiple regression analyses, carbohydrate intake (β = 0.53, P = 0.001), basal insulin dose per kg per day (β = -0.31, P = 0.034) and diabetes duration (β = 0.30, P = 0.042) were independent predictors of time spent in euglycemia. Carbohydrate intake (β = -0.51, P = 0.001) and insulin pump use (β = -0.34, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of time spent in hyperglycemia. Insulin pump use (β = 0.52, P < 0.001) and bolus insulin dose per kg per day (β = 0.46, P = 0.001) were independent predictors of time spent in hypoglycemia.
Conclusions: Carbohydrate intake is associated with time spent in euglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes.
Keywords: Dietary carbohydrates; Glycemic control; Type 1 diabetes mellitus.