Two decades of studies in multiple model organisms have established the Hippo pathway as a key regulator of organ size and tissue homeostasis. By inhibiting YAP and TAZ transcription co-activators, the Hippo pathway regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stemness in response to a wide range of extracellular and intracellular signals, including cell-cell contact, cell polarity, mechanical cues, ligands of G-protein-coupled receptors, and cellular energy status. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway exerts a significant impact on cancer development. Further investigation of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of this pathway will help uncovering the mystery of organ size control and identify new targets for cancer treatment.
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