DNA demethylation plays a central role during development and in adult physiology. Different mechanisms of active DNA demethylation have been established. For example, Growth Arrest and DNA Damage 45-(GADD45) and Ten-Eleven-Translocation (TET) proteins act in active DNA demethylation but their functional relationship is unresolved. Here we show that GADD45a physically interacts--and functionally cooperates with TET1 in methylcytosine (mC) processing. In reporter demethylation GADD45a requires endogenous TET1 and conversely TET1 requires GADD45a. On GADD45a target genes TET1 hyperinduces 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) in the presence of GADD45a, while 5-formyl-(fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (caC) are reduced. Likewise, in global analysis GADD45a positively regulates TET1 mediated mC oxidation and enhances fC/caC removal. Our data suggest a dual function of GADD45a in oxidative DNA demethylation, to promote directly or indirectly TET1 activity and to enhance subsequent fC/caC removal.
Keywords: DNA demethylation; Gadd45; LC–MS/MS; TET; hmC.
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