Apically extruded debris during root canal preparation using Vortex Blue, K3XF, ProTaper Next and Reciproc instruments

Int Endod J. 2016 Dec;49(12):1183-1187. doi: 10.1111/iej.12572. Epub 2015 Nov 30.


Aim: To assess the amount of debris extruded apically during root canal preparation using various nickel-titanium instrumentation systems.

Methodology: Sixty extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar human teeth were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 15 teeth for each group). The canals were then instrumented with the following instrument systems: Vortex Blue (VB; Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK, USA), K3XF (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA), Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The Eppendorf tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70 °C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests.

Results: Vortex Blue and PTN files were associated with significantly less apically extruded debris than the K3XF and Reciproc files (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the VB and PTN files or between the K3XF and Reciproc files (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: All instruments were associated with apical extrusion of debris. VB and PTN files were associated with less debris extrusion compared to the other systems.

Keywords: K3XF; Vortex Blue; canal preparation; debris extrusion.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Bicuspid / surgery
  • Dental Instruments
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Root Canal Preparation / adverse effects
  • Root Canal Preparation / instrumentation
  • Root Canal Preparation / methods*
  • Tooth Apex / surgery