Cancer immunotherapy: Strategies for personalization and combinatorial approaches

Mol Oncol. 2015 Dec;9(10):2043-53. doi: 10.1016/j.molonc.2015.10.009. Epub 2015 Oct 23.


The results of recent clinical trials using novel immunotherapy strategies such as immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell therapy approaches including CAR T-cell therapy have clearly established immunotherapy as an important modality for the treatment of cancer besides the traditional approaches of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy or targeted therapy. However, to date immunotherapy has been shown to induce durable clinical benefit in only a fraction of the patients. The use of combination strategies is likely to increase the number of patients that might benefit from immunotherapy. Indeed, over the last decade, the characterization of multiple immune resistance mechanisms used by the tumor to evade the immune system and the development of agents that target those mechanisms has generated a lot of enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy. But a critical issue is to determine how best to combine such agents. This review will focus on novel immunotherapy agents currently in development and discuss strategies to develop and personalize combination cancer immunotherapy strategies.

Keywords: Cancer; Immune checkpoint; Immunotherapy; Personalized; T cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy*
  • Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Precision Medicine*