Shifts Toward Morningness During Behavioral Sleep Interventions Are Associated With Improvements in Depression, Positive Affect, and Sleep Quality

Behav Sleep Med. Nov-Dec 2016;14(6):624-35. doi: 10.1080/15402002.2015.1048452. Epub 2015 Nov 7.


Morningness-eveningness (M-E) is typically considered to be a trait-like construct. However, M-E could plausibly shift in concert with changes in circadian or homeostatic processes. We examined M-E changes across three studies employing behavioral or pharmacological sleep treatments. Baseline and posttreatment M-E scores were strongly correlated across all three samples. M-E showed small but systematic changes toward morningness in sleep-disturbed military veterans receiving behavioral interventions. No systematic M-E changes were observed in the two pharmacological studies (sleep-disturbed military veterans and adults with primary insomnia, respectively). In the behavioral study, M-E changes correlated with changes in depression, positive affect, and sleep quality. M-E changes also correlated with changes in positive affect in the adult insomnia group. M-E appears to exhibit state-like aspects in addition to trait-like aspects.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Affect*
  • Behavior Therapy*
  • Circadian Rhythm / physiology*
  • Depression / psychology
  • Depression / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Sleep / physiology*
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / psychology
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / therapy
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / psychology*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / therapy*
  • Veterans / psychology