An Improved PID Algorithm Based on Insulin-on-Board Estimate for Blood Glucose Control with Type 1 Diabetes

Comput Math Methods Med. 2015;2015:281589. doi: 10.1155/2015/281589. Epub 2015 Oct 5.


Automated closed-loop insulin infusion therapy has been studied for many years. In closed-loop system, the control algorithm is the key technique of precise insulin infusion. The control algorithm needs to be designed and validated. In this paper, an improved PID algorithm based on insulin-on-board estimate is proposed and computer simulations are done using a combinational mathematical model of the dynamics of blood glucose-insulin regulation in the blood system. The simulation results demonstrate that the improved PID algorithm can perform well in different carbohydrate ingestion and different insulin sensitivity situations. Compared with the traditional PID algorithm, the control performance is improved obviously and hypoglycemia can be avoided. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm, in silico testing is done using the UVa/Padova virtual patient software.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Computational Biology
  • Computer Simulation
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / blood*
  • Insulin / pharmacokinetics
  • Insulin Infusion Systems / statistics & numerical data*
  • Mathematical Concepts
  • Models, Biological
  • User-Computer Interface


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin