Pediatric vasculitis

Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2016 Jan;28(1):29-38. doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000236.


Purpose of review: The aim of this review is to define childhood vasculitis and to highlight new causative factors and treatment modalities under the guidance of recently published studies.

Recent findings: Childhood vasculitis is difficult to diagnose because of the wide variation in the symptoms and signs. New nomenclature and classification criteria were proposed for the diagnosis of pediatric vasculitis. Recently, progress has been made toward understanding the genetic susceptibility to pediatric vasculitis as it was in other diseases. Various radiological techniques provide great opportunities in establishing the diagnosis of pediatric vasculitis. Mild central nervous system disease can accompany Henoch-Schonlein purpura and can go unnoticed. Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis is rare in children. Increased severity of the disease, subglottic stenosis, and renal disease are described more frequently among children. Biological therapies are used with success in children as in adults. Future studies, whose aims are to evaluate treatment responses, prognosis and to design guidelines for activity, and damage index of vasculitis for children are required.

Summary: Henoch-Schonlein purpura and Kawasaki disease are the most frequent vasculitides of children. Experience from adult studies for treatment and prognosis are usually used because of low incidence of other vasculitides in children. Multicenter studies of pediatric vasculitis should be conducted to detail treatment responses and prognosis in children.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis
  • Child
  • Humans
  • IgA Vasculitis
  • Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
  • Polyarteritis Nodosa
  • Takayasu Arteritis
  • Vasculitis* / classification
  • Vasculitis* / diagnosis
  • Vasculitis* / etiology
  • Vasculitis* / therapy
  • Vasculitis, Central Nervous System