Background and aim: Previous studies have demonstrated that coffee consumption may be inversely correlated with hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. However, the reported results have been inconsistent. To summarize previous evidences quantitatively, a meta-analysis was performed.
Methods: The Medline, Web of Science, and Embase databases (from inception to June 2015) were searched to identify relevant trials that evaluated the effects of coffee consumption on hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. Odds ratios (ORs) of advanced hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis for low or moderate, high, and any coffee consumption versus no consumption were pooled. Two cups per day was used as the cut-off level between low or moderate and high consumption.
Results: Sixteen studies were included, involving 3034 coffee consumers and 132076 people who do not consume coffee. The pooled results of the meta-analysis indicated that coffee consumers were less likely to develop cirrhosis compared with those who do not consume coffee, with a summary OR of 0.61 (95%CI: 0.45-0.84). For low or moderate coffee consumption versus no consumption, the pooled OR of hepatic cirrhosis was 0.66 (95%CI: 0.47-0.92). High coffee consumption could also significantly reduce the risk for hepatic cirrhosis when compared with no coffee consumption (OR = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.42-0.68). The effect of coffee consumption on hepatic fibrosis was summarized as well. The pooled OR of advanced hepatic fibrosis for coffee consumption versus no consumption was 0.73 (95%CI: 0.58-0.92). The protective effect of coffee on hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis was also identified in subgroup meta-analyses of patients with alcoholic liver disease and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
Conclusion: Coffee consumption can significantly reduce the risk for hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis.