Finding the Subcellular Location of Barley, Wheat, Rice and Maize Proteins: The Compendium of Crop Proteins with Annotated Locations (cropPAL)

Plant Cell Physiol. 2016 Jan;57(1):e9. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcv170. Epub 2015 Nov 9.


Barley, wheat, rice and maize provide the bulk of human nutrition and have extensive industrial use as agricultural products. The genomes of these crops each contains >40,000 genes encoding proteins; however, the major genome databases for these species lack annotation information of protein subcellular location for >80% of these gene products. We address this gap, by constructing the compendium of crop protein subcellular locations called crop Proteins with Annotated Locations (cropPAL). Subcellular location is most commonly determined by fluorescent protein tagging of live cells or mass spectrometry detection in subcellular purifications, but can also be predicted from amino acid sequence or protein expression patterns. The cropPAL database collates 556 published studies, from >300 research institutes in >30 countries that have been previously published, as well as compiling eight pre-computed subcellular predictions for all Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa and Zea mays protein sequences. The data collection including metadata for proteins and published studies can be accessed through a search portal The subcellular localization information housed in cropPAL helps to depict plant cells as compartmentalized protein networks that can be investigated for improving crop yield and quality, and developing new biotechnological solutions to agricultural challenges.

Keywords: Cell Biology; Compartments; Crop; Database; Proteomes; Subcellular localizations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Computational Biology
  • Crops, Agricultural
  • Databases, Genetic*
  • Genome, Plant / genetics*
  • Hordeum / genetics*
  • Hordeum / metabolism
  • Oryza / genetics*
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Protein Transport
  • Triticum / genetics*
  • Zea mays / genetics*


  • Plant Proteins