A simple non-invasive technique for venom milking from a solitary wasp Delta conoideum Gmelin (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

Toxicon. 2016 Jan;109:4-6. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.10.023. Epub 2015 Nov 7.


Prospecting wasp, ant and bee venom for active bio-molecules has gained considerable interest among researchers in recent years. Collecting sufficient quantity of venom from solitary wasps without sacrificing them is often difficult. Here we describe a non-invasive technique for collecting venom from a solitary wasp Delta conoideum Gmelin (Red-backed potter wasp). Venom was milked by presenting an agar block to a single female wasp for stinging. The venom was extracted from the agar block using ACN: water solvent system. The total protein in venom was estimated quantitatively and the presence of peptides in the venom was confirmed by MALDI-TOF analysis. The proposed technique is non-invasive and pure venom can be repeatedly 'milked' using this method from other wasps and also bees without the need for sacrificing a large number of individuals.

Keywords: Hymenoptera; MALDI TOF; Solitary wasp; Sting; Venom.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Female
  • Hymenoptera / metabolism*
  • Wasp Venoms / isolation & purification*


  • Wasp Venoms