2 x 2 kappa coefficients: measures of agreement or association

Biometrics. 1989 Mar;45(1):269-87.


Two general but different contexts in which kappa might be used are defined: agreement and association. Two models, one for agreement and one for utility of association, are defined yielding different kappa coefficients and different sampling theory. Asymptotic results are derived for both models. Small-sample evaluations are presented for the model for agreement.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Decision Support Techniques
  • Models, Statistical*
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Reproducibility of Results*
  • Risk Factors