Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems and other tobacco products among USA adults, 2014: results from a national survey

Int J Public Health. 2016 Mar;61(2):177-88. doi: 10.1007/s00038-015-0761-0. Epub 2015 Nov 12.


Objectives: This study assessed the awareness and use of traditional and novel tobacco products and dual use of cigarettes with electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) among USA adults.

Methods: Data were obtained from the 2014 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a probability sample of 5717 USA adults conducted June-November, 2014.

Results: Use of ENDS varied by demography and by cigarette and other tobacco use. Adults aged 25-34, non-heterosexual adults, and those reporting poorer health reported higher rates of current ENDS use. Current cigarette smokers had much greater odds of ENDS ever use than never smokers, with one-half of all cigarette smokers having used ENDS and 20.7 % currently using them. However, 22.0 % of current ENDS users were former cigarette smokers, and 10.0 % were never cigarette smokers.

Conclusions: Patterns of ENDS use are evolving rapidly and merit continued surveillance. Nearly 10 % of adult ENDS usage is among never smokers. The public health challenge is how to enhance the potential that ENDS can replace combusted tobacco products without expanding nicotine use among youth, long-term ex-smokers, and other vulnerable populations.

Keywords: Awareness; Electronic cigarette; Electronic nicotine delivery systems; Prevalence; Regulatory science; Tobacco.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Awareness
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nicotine / administration & dosage
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tobacco Products / statistics & numerical data*
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Nicotine