The role of polyphenols in the cardiovascular diseases prevention is still a matter of scientific discussion. However, recent clinical studies indicate that intake of anthocyanins and in a lesser extent procyanidins can participate in prevention of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) are known to be a reach source of these polyphenols. Moreover, its extracts were shown to express strong antioxidant, antiinflammatory, vasorelaxant and antithrombotic properties. The aim of the review is to summarize the results of the hitherto research regarding the biological effects at the molecular and clinical level.