MicroRNAs and SIRT1: A Strategy for Stem Cell Renewal and Clinical Development?

J Transl Sci. 2015 Nov;1(3):55-57. Epub 2015 Oct 8.

Abstract

Small non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs), known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are now becoming recognized as significant agents that can affect the onset and progression of numerous disorders throughout the body. In particular, miRNAs also may determine stem cell renewal and differentiation. Intimately tied to the ability of miRNAs to govern stem cell proliferation are the proliferative pathways of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (SIRT1) and the cell survival mechanisms of autophagy that can be coupled to the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Targeting miRNAs that oversee SIRT1 activity offers interesting prospects for the translation of these pathways into efficacious clinical treatment programs for a host of disorders. Yet, as work in this area progresses, a number of challenges unfold that impact whether manipulation of non-coding RNAs and SIRT1 can finely guide stem cell renewal and differentiation to reach successful clinical outcomes.

Keywords: Akt; FoxO; SIRT1; apoptosis; autophagy; forkhead; mTOR; mTORC1; mTORC2; miRNA; programmed cell death; sirtuins; small non-coding RNA; stem cells.