Objective: To investigate whether individualized low-protein diet intervention for patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD)could improve the general condition,slow the deterioration of renal function,and delay the time of entering dialysis.
Methods: Forty CKD inpatients between July 2011 and July 2012 were randomly given with normal or individualized low-protein diet for six months according to random number table after signing informed consent. The levels of urine protein and biochemical indexes of renal function were measured at baseline and at the end of dietary intervention for six months, respectively.
Results: The baseline urine protein level,renal function,and biochemical indexes were not significantly different between these two groups. The diastolic blood pressure,protein intake,blood urea nitrogen,uric acid, potassium, phosphorus, C-reaction protein,24-hour urea nitrogen,and urine protein after six months were significantly lower than those at baseline,that is,(101.70 ± 15.78)mmHg vs.(91.75 ±15.52) mmHg,(63.87 ± 24.70)g/d vs.(50.02 ± 14.07)g/d,(20.01 ± 7.69)mmol/L vs.(15.11 ± 4.90) mmol/L,(362.75 ± 84.56)Μmol/L vs.(302.20 ± 8.48)Μmol/L,(5.22 ± 0.75)mmol/L vs.(4.79±0.36) mmol/L,(2.07 ± 0.68) mmol/L vs.(1.57 ± 0.41) mmol/L,1.19 [0.65,4.17] mg/L vs. 0.74 [0.38,1.33] mg/L,70.6 [8.70,101.18] mmol/L vs. 16.93 [3.23,72.27] mmol/L,1.00 [0.30,1.00] g/d vs. 0.15 [0,0.83] g/d (all P<0.05),among which albumin and hemoglobin were significantly higher [(0.34 ± 0.07)g/L vs.(0.37 ± 0.05)g/L, (99.38 ± 21.89)g/L vs.(126.35 ± 14.11)g/L,respectively] in the individualized low-protein diet group. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The most relevant for urine protein producing was prealbumin (r=0.924, P<0.05). The differences of blood urea nitrogen, potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, 24-hour urea nitrogen, urine specific gravity, urine protein, and hemoglobin in six months in the individualized low-protein diet group were significantly better than those in the normal low protein-diet group (P<0.05).
Conclusions: Individualized low-protein diet intervention may have definite curative effectiveness in CKD patients. It can markedly improve the patients' condition,slow down the deterio-ration of renal function,and increase serum prealbumin levels that may reduce the generation of urine protein. It is worthy of wider clinical application.