The presence in human gastric juice of a lipase secreted by the gastric mucosae has been reported previously, but its exact cellular origin has not yet been established. Polyclonal antibodies specific to human gastric lipase (HGL) were prepared, and used by an immunofluorescence technique to label cells producing HGL. This immunocytolocalization was correlated with that of pepsin (chief cells) and parietal cells using specific polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies. Our results clearly establish that HGL is exclusively located in the chief cells of fundic mucosa; furthermore, it was found to be always co-located with pepsin. No HGL was observed in the parietal or mucus cells. HGL was always detected intracellularly, either in secretory granules of the apical region of the chief cells, or revealed by more diffuse cytoplasmic labelling.