Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained mainstream attention with its remarkable efficacy in treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) when there are no other effective therapies. Methods of selecting donors and routes of administration vary among studies, but there are now randomized controlled trials showing efficacy of FMT in treating RCDI. Ongoing trials of FMT for other disease such as inflammatory bowel disease are underway; this therapy should not be used for these conditions unless there is strong evidence for efficacy. Long-term safety data are sorely needed, as well as clarification of regulatory concerns.
Keywords: Clostridium difficile infection; fecal microbiota transplant; inflammatory bowel disease; microbiome; recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.