Purpose: To describe body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)), strength, and nutritional characteristics of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis undergoing total joint arthroplasty.
Methods: In this prospective pilot study, osteoarthritic patients underwent body composition assessment using bioelectrical impedance analysis, grip strength measurement, and completed a 24-h dietary recall during their pre-operative assessment.
Results: Fifty-five patients were included (∼66% females, age 43-89 years). Mean ± SD body mass index (BMI) was 32.79 ± 6.48 kg/m(2) and 62% were obese. Compared with hip osteoarthritis patients, knee osteoarthritis patients had a higher BMI (P = 0.018) and males with knee osteoarthritis had a lower grip strength (P = 0.028). There was a wide range in FM and FFM values across the BMI spectrum. Patients with a higher FM index (FMI, FM/height in m(2)) had higher levels of pain (P = 0.036) and females with higher FMI had a lower grip strength (P = 0.048). Dietary under-reporting was common and many patients did not meet recommendations for protein, vitamins C and E, or omega-3 fatty acids. Those who consumed less protein than the recommended dietary allowance were older (P = 0.018).
Conclusions: A wide variability of body composition and dietary intake was observed which may impact strength and ultimately affect physical function. As such, patients with osteoarthritis may benefit from targeted nutrition and physical activity interventions before and after surgery.