Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Trematodes and cestodes

J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015 Dec;73(6):947-57; quiz 957-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2014.11.035.


In the 21st century, despite increased international travel for vacation, work, and medical missions and immigration into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. It has been estimated that 20% to 70% of international travelers suffer from some travel-related health problem. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on cutaneous diseases caused by helminth infections. Part I of the review focused on nematode infections; part II will focus on trematode and cestode infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus.

Keywords: cysticercosis; echinococcus; fascioliasis; helminth; paragonimiasis; parasite; schistosomiasis; travel.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anticestodal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiplatyhelmintic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Biopsy, Needle
  • Cestoda / isolation & purification
  • Cestode Infections / diagnosis*
  • Cestode Infections / drug therapy
  • Cestode Infections / epidemiology*
  • Disease Progression
  • Endemic Diseases
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Incidence
  • Larva Migrans / diagnosis
  • Larva Migrans / drug therapy
  • Larva Migrans / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Rare Diseases
  • Risk Assessment
  • Skin Diseases, Parasitic / diagnosis
  • Skin Diseases, Parasitic / drug therapy
  • Skin Diseases, Parasitic / epidemiology
  • Travel
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Trematoda / isolation & purification
  • Trematode Infections / diagnosis*
  • Trematode Infections / drug therapy
  • Trematode Infections / epidemiology*
  • Tropical Climate


  • Anticestodal Agents
  • Antiplatyhelmintic Agents