The effect of the beta-lactam antibiotic, amdinocillin, on the bacterial biofilm adherent to the Foley catheter surface, the bacterial microcolonies attached to the urinary bladder mucosa, and on planktonic bacteria in the urine was studied in a rabbit model of the closed urinary catheter drainage system. Progressively increasing the dose of antibiotic in this experimental catheter-associated urinary tract infection model first eliminated the bacterial population adherent to the bladder mucosa and then the planktonic population in the urine. The bacterial biofilm on the Foley catheter could be eradicated only by the highest dose of antibiotic (400 mg/kg). Scanning electron microscopy showed a gradual deterioration of bacterial biofilm and reduction in bacterial numbers with increasing antibiotic dosages. These data suggest that antibiotics used in short-term catheterization may reduce the serious sequelae associated with catheter-related infections by clearing the potentially dangerous bladder mucosal bacterial populations and urine planktonic bacteria.