2-Furaldehyde diethyl acetal from tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera) attenuates biofilm formation and quorum sensing-mediated virulence of Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Biofouling. 2015;31(9-10):721-33. doi: 10.1080/08927014.2015.1102897.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm and quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential of tender coconut water (TCW) against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. TCW significantly inhibited the QS regulated violacein, virulence factors and biofilm production without affecting their growth. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the down-regulation of autoinducer synthase, transcriptional regulator and virulence genes. Mass-spectrometric analysis of a petroleum ether extract of the TCW hydrolyte revealed that 2-furaldehyde diethyl acetal (2FDA) and palmitic acid (PA) are the major compounds. In vitro bioassays confirmed the ability of 2FDA to inhibit the biofilm formation and virulence factors. In addition, the combination of PA with 2FDA resulted in potent inhibition of biofilm formation and virulence factors. The results obtained strongly suggest that TCW can be exploited as a base for designing a novel antipathogenic drug formulation to treat biofilm mediated infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: 2-furaldehyde diethyl acetal; Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145; palmitic acid; quorum sensing inhibition; tender coconut water.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biofilms / drug effects*
  • Biofilms / growth & development
  • Chromobacterium / drug effects*
  • Chromobacterium / growth & development
  • Chromobacterium / pathogenicity
  • Cocos / chemistry*
  • Cocos / growth & development
  • Down-Regulation
  • Furaldehyde / analogs & derivatives*
  • Furaldehyde / isolation & purification
  • Furaldehyde / pharmacology*
  • India
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects*
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / growth & development
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / pathogenicity
  • Quorum Sensing / drug effects*
  • Virulence / drug effects
  • Virulence Factors / antagonists & inhibitors


  • 2-furaldehyde diethyl acetal
  • Plant Extracts
  • Virulence Factors
  • Furaldehyde