Background and purpose: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) affects lipid, bone and glucose homeostasis. High-affinity ligands for the GIP receptor are needed to elucidate the physiological functions and pharmacological potential of GIP in vivo. GIP(1-30)NH2 is a naturally occurring truncation of GIP(1-42). Here, we have characterized eight N-terminal truncations of human GIP(1-30)NH2 .
Experimental approach: COS-7 cells were transiently transfected with human GIP receptors and assessed for cAMP accumulation upon ligand stimulation or competition binding with (125) I-labelled GIP(1-42), GIP(1-30)NH2 , GIP(2-30)NH2 or GIP(3-30)NH2 .
Key results: GIP(1-30)NH2 displaced (125) I-GIP(1-42) as effectively as GIP(1-42) (Ki 0.75 nM), whereas the eight truncations displayed lower affinities (Ki 2.3-347 nM) with highest affinities for GIP(3-30)NH2 and GIP(5-30)NH2 (5-30)NH2 . Only GIP(1-30)NH2 (Emax 100% of GIP(1-42)) and GIP(2-30)NH2 (Emax 20%) were agonists. GIP(2- to 9-30)NH2 displayed antagonism (IC50 12-450 nM) and Schild plot analyses identified GIP(3-30)NH2 and GIP(5-30)NH2 as competitive antagonists (Ki 15 nM). GIP(3-30) NH2 was a 26-fold more potent antagonist than GIP(3-42). Binding studies with agonist ((125) I-GIP(1-30)NH2 ), partial agonist ((125) I-GIP(2-30)NH2 ) and competitive antagonist ((125) I-GIP(3-30)NH2 ) revealed distinct receptor conformations for these three ligand classes.
Conclusions and implications: The N-terminus is crucial for GIP agonist activity. Removal of the C-terminus of the endogenous GIP(3-42) creates another naturally occurring, more potent, antagonist GIP(3-30)NH2 , which like GIP(5-30)NH2 , was a high-affinity competitive antagonist. These peptides may be suitable tools for basic GIP research and future pharmacological interventions.
© 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.