The acquired demyelinating polyneuropathies include acute (AIDP, Guillain-Barré syndrome, GBS) and chronic (CIDP, dysproteinemic) forms which differ primarily in their temporal profile. They are inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system and likely have an immunologic pathogenesis. Although these neuropathies usually have a characteristic presentation, the electromyographer plays a central role in their recognition, since the demyelinating component of the neuropathy, which greatly reduces the differential diagnosis, is often first identified in the electromyography laboratory. In AIDP, the electromyographer, in addition to establishing the diagnosis, can sometimes predict the prognosis. Recognition of the chronic and dysproteinemic forms of acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy is important since they are treatable. The dysproteinemic forms also may be associated with occult systemic disorders that also may require treatment, independent of the neuropathy.