2-Aminoacrylate Stress Induces a Context-Dependent Glycine Requirement in ridA Strains of Salmonella enterica

J Bacteriol. 2015 Nov 16;198(3):536-43. doi: 10.1128/JB.00804-15. Print 2016 Feb 1.


The reactive enamine 2-aminoacrylate (2AA) is a metabolic stressor capable of damaging cellular components. Members of the broadly conserved Rid (RidA/YER057c/UK114) protein family mitigate 2AA stress in vivo by facilitating enamine and/or imine hydrolysis. Previous work showed that 2AA accumulation in ridA strains of Salmonella enterica led to the inactivation of multiple target enzymes, including serine hydroxymethyltransferase (GlyA). However, the specific cause of a ridA strain's inability to grow during periods of 2AA stress had yet to be determined. Work presented here shows that glycine supplementation suppressed all 2AA-dependent ridA strain growth defects described to date. Depending on the metabolic context, glycine appeared to suppress ridA strain growth defects by eliciting a GcvB small RNA-dependent regulatory response or by serving as a precursor to one-carbon units produced by the glycine cleavage complex (GCV). In either case, the data suggest that GlyA is the most physiologically sensitive target of 2AA inactivation in S. enterica. The universally conserved nature of GlyA among free-living organisms highlights the importance of RidA in mitigating 2AA stress.

Importance: The RidA stress response prevents 2-aminoacrylate (2AA) damage from occurring in prokaryotes and eukaryotes alike. 2AA inactivation of serine hydroxymethyltransferase (GlyA) from Salmonella enterica restricts glycine and one-carbon production, ultimately reducing fitness of the organism. The cooccurrence of genes encoding 2AA production enzymes and serine hydroxy-methyltransferase (SHMT) in many genomes may in part underlie the evolutionary selection for Rid proteins to maintain appropriate glycine and one-carbon metabolism throughout life.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Acrylates / pharmacology*
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial / drug effects*
  • Glycine / metabolism*
  • Salmonella enterica / genetics
  • Salmonella enterica / metabolism*
  • Stress, Physiological / drug effects*


  • Acrylates
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Glycine