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. 2015 Nov 17;15:408.
doi: 10.1186/s12906-015-0932-9.

Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. (Wild Garlic) Rhizome Methanolic Extract in a Diabetic Rat Model

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Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Tulbaghia Violacea Harv. (Wild Garlic) Rhizome Methanolic Extract in a Diabetic Rat Model

Kogi Moodley et al. BMC Complement Altern Med. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) continues to rise alarmingly despite years of intensive research. The need to explore alternative remedies such as traditional phytotherapy has therefore become increasingly important in the management and treatment of DM.

Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg.b.w) in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: non-diabetic control fed distilled water, diabetic control fed distilled water, diabetic group treated with Tulbaghia violacea (TVL) (60 mg/kg.b.w), diabetic group treated with TVL (120 mg/kg.b.w), and diabetic group treated with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg.b.w). Food and water intake, as well as urine output were measured daily, whilst body weight and fasting blood glucose were monitored weekly. On day 42, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed on all groups. After 7 weeks, the animals were sacrificed by halothane overdose, blood was removed by cardiac puncture and tissues were harvested. Assays were performed for the determination of plasma insulin, liver glycogen content, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme levels, plasma nitric oxide levels and serum lipid and liver enzyme levels.

Results and discussion: TVL treatment improved body weights, significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance and significantly increased plasma insulin and liver glycogen content. TVL treatment also reduced liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, increased liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and increased plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels. Furthermore, TVL administration reduced serum triglycerides, VLDL, total-cholesterol levels and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. TVL also reduced serum levels of liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST).

Conclusion: Data obtained in this study demonstrated the hypoglycemic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of TVL in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
GC-MS chromatograph of methanolic extract of Tulbaghia violacea rhizomes
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Effect of TVL on fasting blood glucose levels in non-diabetic and diabetic rats. All data are expressed as mean ± SEM for 7 animals per group. ***p < 0.001, significantly different compared to non-diabetic control. a p < 0.05 Significantly different from baseline value.b p < 0.05 and bb p < 0.01, Significantly different from baseline value respectively. cc p < 0.01, Significantly different from baseline value. # p < 0.05 and ## p < 0.01, significantly different from non-diabetic group at week 7
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Effect of TVL on OGTT in non-diabetic and diabetic rats. All data are expressed as mean ± SEM for 7 animals per group. #Significantly different from diabetic control, p < 0.05
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Area under the curve determined from OGTT graph of non-diabetic and diabetic rats. All data are expressed as mean ± SEM for 7 animals per group. ***Significantly different compared to non-diabetic control, p < 0.001
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
Effect of TVL on plasma insulin concentration in non-diabetic and diabetic rats. All data are expressed as mean ± SEM for 7 animals per group. ***Significant difference compared to non-diabetic control, p < 0.001. #Significant difference compared to diabetic control, p < 0.05
Fig. 6
Fig. 6
Effect of TVL on liver glycogen levels in non-diabetic and diabetic rats. All data are expressed as mean ± SEM for 7 animals per group. **Significant difference compared to non- diabetic control, p < 0.01. #Significant difference compared to diabetic control, p < 0.05
Fig. 7
Fig. 7
Photomicrographs of the pancreatic islets of normal and diabetic rats. a non-diabetic control; (b); diabetic control (c) TVL 60 mg/kg.b.w. d TVL 120 mg/kg.b.w; and (e) glibenclamide 10 mg/kg.b.w. Images taken at 20–100 μ m
Fig. 8
Fig. 8
Effect of TVL on pancreatic islet numbers in non-diabetic and diabetic rats. All data are expressed as mean ± SEM for 7 animals per group. **Significantly different from non- diabetic control, p < 0.01. #Significantly different from diabetic control, p < 0.05. $Significantly different from TVL120, p < 0.05
Fig. 9
Fig. 9
Effect of TVL on Area (μ m2) of pancreatic islet in non-diabetic and diabetic rats. All data are expressed as mean ± SEM for 7 animals per group. *Significantly different from non- diabetic control, p < 0.05. **Significantly different from non-diabetic control, p < 0.01. ***Significantly different from non-diabetic control, p < 0.001. ###Significantly different from diabetic control, p < 0.001 $$Significantly different from TVL120, p < 0.01

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