Model-based approaches for ivabradine development in paediatric population, part II: PK and PK/PD assessment

J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2016 Feb;43(1):29-43. doi: 10.1007/s10928-015-9452-y. Epub 2015 Nov 14.


The objectives of this work were first to describe the pharmacokinetic (PK) of ivabradine and its active metabolite in a paediatric patient population after repeated oral administration of ivabradine using a population PK approach, and secondly to assess whether the blood/plasma ratio and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship are preserved in the paediatric population in comparison to adult. PK data for 70 patients were obtained after blood sampling using dried blood spot and one plasma sample in order to assess the relationship between blood and plasma concentration. In order to describe ivabradine and its metabolite blood concentrations in children, a joint population PK model was developed taking into account weight & age effects on PK parameters. Plasma PK exposure parameters were calculated in children using plasma PK profiles. In order to assess the PK/PD relationship in children, an adult PK/PD model was used. The relationship between blood and plasma concentrations was described using linear mixed effect models. Two and one-compartment models best described parent and metabolite dispositions. Weight effects were fixed to the allometric values of ¾ on clearance (CL) and 1 on volume. A maturation function was added on metabolite formation clearance (CL PM ) reflecting enzyme maturation. Plasma exposure comparison indicated that higher dose/kg were necessary to achieve a similar exposure between younger and older children. No differences between age classes were observed in terms of range of exposure at the maintenance dose. The PK/PD relationship in adult patients is conserved in children.

Keywords: Allometric scaling; Ivabradine; Maturation function; Paediatric; Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship; Population pharmacokinetic modelling.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aging / metabolism
  • Algorithms
  • Benzazepines / pharmacokinetics*
  • Benzazepines / pharmacology*
  • Biotransformation
  • Body Weight
  • Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Computer Simulation
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Dried Blood Spot Testing
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Ivabradine
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Models, Biological
  • Sex Characteristics


  • Benzazepines
  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Ivabradine