Involvement of microRNAs in the inflammatory pathways of pulmonary sarcoidosis

J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015 Oct;66(5):635-42.


Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ disease in which affected tissues are invaded with non-necrotizing granulomatous structures, mostly consisted of T helper 1 (Th1) cells and multinucleate giant cells. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of sarcoidosis is not known and the diagnosis is usually based on clinical examination involving radiography and histopathological analysis of biopsies of affected organs. Although the knowledge on the molecular background of sarcoidosis is limited, it seems that the important pathways involve transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and JAK/STAT, which may influence the interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-mediated signaling. Additionally, recently the role of microRNAs (miRNAs), the small non-coding RNA molecules, has been emphasized in different pathological conditions including autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular pathways in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on cytokines and miRNAs controlling immune cells proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, the possible role of T regulatory cells (CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+)) in this disease has been discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Cell Proliferation / physiology
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / genetics
  • Inflammation / pathology*
  • MicroRNAs / genetics*
  • Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary / genetics
  • Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary / physiopathology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / metabolism


  • Cytokines
  • MicroRNAs