Purpose: To determine if adventitial transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the outflow vein of B6.Cg-Foxn1(nu)/J mice with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) at the time of creation would reduce monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1) gene expression and venous neointimal hyperplasia. The second aim was to track transplanted zirconium 89 ((89)Zr)-labeled MSCs serially with positron emission tomography (PET) for 21 days.
Materials and methods: All animal experiments were performed according to protocols approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Fifty B6.Cg-Foxn1(nu)/J mice were used to accomplish the study aims. Green fluorescent protein was used to stably label 2.5 × 10(5) MSCs, which were injected into the adventitia of the outflow vein at the time of AVF creation in the MSC group. Eleven mice died after AVF placement. Animals were sacrificed on day 7 after AVF placement for real-time polymerase chain reaction (n = 6 for MSC and control groups) and histomorphometric (n = 6 for MSC and control groups) analyses and on day 21 for histomorphometric analysis only (n = 6 for MSC and control groups). In a separate group of experiments (n = 3), animals with transplanted (89)Zr-labeled MSCs were serially imaged with PET for 3 weeks. Multiple comparisons were performed with two-way analysis of variance, followed by the Student t test with post hoc Bonferroni correction.
Results: In vessels with transplanted MSCs compared with control vessels, there was a significant decrease in Mcp-1 gene expression (day 7: mean reduction, 62%; P = .029), with a significant increase in the mean lumen vessel area (day 7: mean increase, 176% [P = .013]; day 21: mean increase, 415% [P = .011]). Moreover, this was accompanied by a significant decrease in Ki-67 index (proliferation on day 7: mean reduction, 81% [P = .0003]; proliferation on day 21: mean reduction, 60%, [P = .016]). Prolonged retention of MSCs at the adventitia was evidenced by serial PET images of (89)Zr-labeled cells.
Conclusion: Adventitial transplantation of MSCs decreases Mcp-1 gene expression, accompanied by a reduction in venous neointimal hyperplasia.
(©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.