Most Common Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins on Fresh Produce: A Review of Recent Outbreaks

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Jul 3;56(9):1532-44. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2013.777021.


Every year millions of people are affected and thousands of them die due to infections and intoxication as a result of foodborne outbreaks, which also cause billions of dollars' worth of damage, public health problems, and agricultural product loss. A considerable portion of these outbreaks is related to fresh produce and caused by foodborne pathogens on fresh produce and mycotoxins. Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak, occurred in Germany in 2011, has attracted a great attention on foodborne outbreaks caused by contaminated fresh produce, and especially the vulnerability and gaps in the early warning and notification networks in the surveillance systems in all around the world. In the frame of this paper, we reviewed the most common foodborne pathogens on fresh produce, traceback investigations of the outbreaks caused by these pathogens, and lastly international early warning and notification systems, including PulseNet International and Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, aiming to detect foodborne outbreaks.

Keywords: Foodborne pathogens; PulseNet; RASFF; epidemiology; fresh produce; notification; traceback.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Notification
  • Disease Outbreaks*
  • Escherichia coli Infections / epidemiology
  • Escherichia coli O104
  • Food Microbiology
  • Foodborne Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Foodborne Diseases / microbiology*
  • Fruit / microbiology*
  • Germany / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Mycotoxins / analysis*
  • Vegetables / microbiology*


  • Mycotoxins