The functional properties of noble metal nanomaterials are determined by their size, shape, composition, architecture and crystal structure/phase. In recent years, the crystal phase control of noble metal nanomaterials has emerged as an efficient and versatile strategy to tune their properties. In this tutorial review, we will give an overview of the latest research progress in the crystal phase-controlled synthesis of noble metal nanomaterials. Moreover, the crystal phase-dependent chemical and physical properties (e.g. chemical stability, magnetic, electrical and optical properties) and catalytic applications (e.g. oxygen reduction reaction, and oxidation reactions of formic acid, methanol and carbon monoxide) of noble metal nanomaterials are also briefly introduced. Finally, based on the current research status of the crystal phase-controlled synthesis of noble metal nanomaterials, we will provide some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this emerging research field.