The decapping scavenger enzyme DcpS is known for its role in hydrolyzing the cap structure following mRNA degradation. Recently, we discovered a new function in miRNA degradation activation for the ortholog of DcpS in C. elegans. Here we show that human DcpS conserves its role in miRNA turnover. In human cells, DcpS is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that activates miRNA degradation independently of its scavenger decapping activity in the cytoplasmic compartment. We also demonstrate that this new function for DcpS requires the contribution of the 5'-3' exonuclease Xrn2. Our findings support a conserved role of DcpS as a modulator of miRNA turnover in animals.