Predictors of stereoacuity outcome in visually mature subjects with exotropia

Eye (Lond). 2016 Feb;30(2):264-9. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.241. Epub 2015 Nov 20.


The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of stereoacuity outcome in visually mature subjects with exotropia following surgical correction. Visually mature subjects who were surgically aligned and had been tested for stereoacuity in the postoperative period were studied retrospectively. Subjects were grouped with respect to their responses to Titmus or TNO stereotests. Characteristics such as amblyopia, anisometropia, and characteristics of the exodeviation such as time of onset, duration, intermittency, presence of an A or V pattern, distance-near disparity, coexisting vertical deviation, and inferior oblique overaction, were compared between the groups. One hundred and four visually mature subjects with exotropia met the inclusion criteria. Stereoacuity was achieved in 77% of the study group and only 9% of these could achieve fine stereoacuity. Negative stereoacuity was more frequently associated with larger deviation angles, higher anisometropia, inferior oblique overaction, pattern strabismus, coexisting vertical strabismus, and distance-near disparity, but not at a statistically significant level. The optimal cutoff for strabismus duration was 20 years for a positive stereoacuity outcome. Any-level visual acuity difference was found to decrease the chance for positive stereoacuity significantly. The odds ratios for the stereoacuity positivity were 4.05 for strabismus duration <20 years, 7.9 for strabismus onset >1 year of age, 3.79 for weaker eye visual acuity >20/25 and 9.85 for intermittency of strabismus. Intermittence of exotropia was the strongest predictor for positive stereoacuity. Exotropia onset after 1 year of age, absence of any-level visual acuity difference, and strabismus duration <20 years were the other predictors with decreasing power.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Amblyopia / physiopathology
  • Animals
  • Anisometropia / physiopathology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depth Perception / physiology*
  • Exotropia / physiopathology*
  • Exotropia / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oculomotor Muscles / surgery
  • Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Vision, Binocular / physiology*
  • Visual Acuity / physiology*