Spastic diplegia has been recognized as the type of cerebral palsy most frequently associated with prematurity. Due to constantly improving neonatal care in developed countries, more and smaller premature infants are surviving, and the number of spastic diplegic children can be expected to increase. This paper reviews the incidence, pathophysiology, and associated handicaps of patients with this type of cerebral palsy. The role of the physiatrist and aspects of traditional management are discussed. Recent advances in treatment of spasticity and lower extremity bracing are stressed as they seem to be particularly suitable to spastic diplegic patients.