Artificial Pancreas Device Systems for the Closed-Loop Control of Type 1 Diabetes: What Systems Are in Development?

J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2016 May 3;10(3):714-23. doi: 10.1177/1932296815617968. Print 2016 May.


Background: Closed-loop artificial pancreas device (APD) systems are externally worn medical devices that are being developed to enable people with type 1 diabetes to regulate their blood glucose levels in a more automated way. The innovative concept of this emerging technology is that hands-free, continuous, glycemic control can be achieved by using digital communication technology and advanced computer algorithms.

Methods: A horizon scanning review of this field was conducted using online sources of intelligence to identify systems in development. The systems were classified into subtypes according to their level of automation, the hormonal and glycemic control approaches used, and their research setting.

Results: Eighteen closed-loop APD systems were identified. All were being tested in clinical trials prior to potential commercialization. Six were being studied in the home setting, 5 in outpatient settings, and 7 in inpatient settings. It is estimated that 2 systems may become commercially available in the EU by the end of 2016, 1 during 2017, and 2 more in 2018.

Conclusions: There are around 18 closed-loop APD systems progressing through early stages of clinical development. Only a few of these are currently in phase 3 trials and in settings that replicate real life.

Keywords: algorithm; artificial pancreas; closed-loop control; device system; glycemic control; type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / instrumentation
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin Infusion Systems
  • Male
  • Pancreas, Artificial*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin