Cellular Players in the Immunopathogenesis of Sarcoidosis

Clin Chest Med. 2015 Dec;36(4):549-60. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2015.08.016.


Current hypotheses on the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis assume that it is induced by a nondegradable antigen inducing immune reactions, which are mediated by a panel of immune cells of the innate and adoptive immune system. This immune reaction leads to an accumulation of immune cells that is mainly alveolar macrophages, T cells, and neutrophils in the lung. As the antigen persists and cannot be eliminated, the ongoing immune reaction results in granuloma formation and remodeling of the lung. The current review aims to elucidate the different roles of the cellular players in the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis.

Keywords: Alveolar macrophage; Cytokines; Saracoidosis; T cells; TH1; TH17; TNF; Treg.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cytokines
  • Humans
  • Macrophages, Alveolar / immunology*
  • Sarcoidosis / immunology*
  • Sarcoidosis / pathology
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology*


  • Cytokines
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha