Protective Effects of Cardamom in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Nov 17;16(11):27457-69. doi: 10.3390/ijms161126040.


Cardamom is a popular spice that has been commonly used in cuisines for flavor since ancient times. It has copious health benefits such as improving digestion, stimulating metabolism, and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The current study investigated the effect of cardamom on hemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and ultrastructural changes in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction. Wistar male albino rats were randomly divided and treated with extract of cardamom (100 and 200 mg/kg per oral) or normal saline for 30 days with concomitant administration of ISO (85 mg/kg, subcutaneous) on 29th and 30th days, at 24 h interval. ISO injections to rats caused cardiac dysfunction evidenced by declined arterial pressure indices, heart rate, contractility and relaxation along with increased preload. ISO also caused a significant decrease in endogenous antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, depletion of cardiomyocytes enzymes, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase and increase in lipid peroxidation. All these changes in cardiac and left ventricular function as well as endogenous antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and myocyte enzymes were ameliorated when the rats were pretreated with cardamom. Additionally, the protective effects were strengthened by improved histopathology and ultrastructural changes, which specifies the salvage of cardiomyocytes from the deleterious effects of ISO. The present study findings demonstrate that cardamom significantly protects the myocardium and exerts cardioprotective effects by free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities.

Keywords: ROS; antioxidants; cardamom; isoproterenol; myocardial infarction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Biomarkers
  • Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacology
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • Creatine Kinase, MB Form / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Elettaria / chemistry*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Hemodynamics / drug effects
  • Isoproterenol / adverse effects
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Male
  • Myocardial Infarction / chemically induced
  • Myocardial Infarction / drug therapy
  • Myocardial Infarction / metabolism*
  • Myocardial Infarction / pathology
  • Myocardial Infarction / physiopathology*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Ventricular Function, Left / drug effects


  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Plant Extracts
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • Catalase
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Creatine Kinase, MB Form
  • Glutathione
  • Isoproterenol