N-Benzylbenzamides: A Novel Merged Scaffold for Orally Available Dual Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase/Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Modulators

J Med Chem. 2016 Jan 14;59(1):61-81. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01239. Epub 2015 Dec 25.


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multifactorial disease cluster that consists of dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity. MetS patients are strongly exposed to polypharmacy; however, the number of pharmacological compounds required for MetS treatment can be reduced by the application of multitarget compounds. This study describes the design of dual-target ligands that target soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type γ (PPARγ). Simultaneous modulation of sEH and PPARγ can improve diabetic conditions and hypertension at once. N-Benzylbenzamide derivatives were determined to fit a merged sEH/PPARγ pharmacophore, and structure-activity relationship studies were performed on both targets, resulting in a submicromolar (sEH IC50 = 0.3 μM/PPARγ EC50 = 0.3 μM) modulator 14c. In vitro and in vivo evaluations revealed good ADME properties qualifying 14c as a pharmacological tool compound for long-term animal models of MetS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 3T3 Cells
  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Benzamides / chemical synthesis*
  • Benzamides / pharmacokinetics
  • Benzamides / pharmacology*
  • COS Cells
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Drug Design
  • Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemical synthesis*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Epoxide Hydrolases / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Metabolic Syndrome / drug therapy*
  • Mice
  • Microsomes, Liver / metabolism
  • PPAR gamma / drug effects*
  • Rats
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Benzamides
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • PPAR gamma
  • Epoxide Hydrolases